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郭海平:精神病人是我们欲望的英雄

(12-12-26 09:09)

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题图:一个多重人格分裂症患者变身12个天才画家
 
艺术家郭海平深入精神病院三个月,让精神病人作画。演讲中,他介绍的画作不仅表现出超常的艺术天赋,有些还有着常人无法企及的视角。他们的作品指引着我们发现自然,发现生命本真,看到文明的真相。
 
 
朋友们,大家好。
 
说到精神病,我们谈得比较多的是精神分裂,说到精神分裂,我们又会想到它是一个医学问题,然后进一步想到它会对我们的家庭、对生活、对社会构成伤害,为什么会出现这种情况,这种情况实际上是我们教育的结果,精神分裂是不是就是这么恐怖、这么恶劣?实际上追寻我们人类的历史,我们有过这样的记录,就是精神分裂的人是我们人类的,或是我们大家的精神领袖,这个记录在我们的萨满教当中可以得到充分的验证,萨满教是人类最原始、最早的一种宗教,对于萨满师来讲,他们要进入到一种与神灵和天地通话的时候,他们必须进入到一种疯癫,甚至于昏迷的状态,那么后来随着理性文化的强大和世俗文化的强大,这些疯癫的萨满师,不具有这种能力了,但是为了维护他们这种世俗的统治地位,他们就开始吃药,相当于我们现在的海洛因、大麻之类的药物,他们在服用这些药物的时候,让自己进入到一种癫狂的、昏迷的状态,然后说一些所谓通灵的话。这种情况在我们看到的,就有迈克尔?杰克逊,迈克尔?杰克逊死亡的原因,大家也知道就是大量地吸毒,实际上在摇滚巨星当中,吸毒的现象非常普遍,他们为什么要吸毒,因为他们不吸毒的话,他们进入不到那种超然的、通灵的状态,他们只有借助于药物让自己断绝和现实、和理性的来往,也就是说非理性、疯癫或者精神分裂,在我们的人类历史上和现实生活当中,并不一定就是那么丑恶、那么恐怖,也就是说它在我们的现实当中,它也是有过受人崇敬的历史。
 
我曾经到南京一家精神病医院专门去考察和了解精神分裂症病人,那种精神疯癫的现象。在这个现实当中,我得到了很多启示和感悟。那么下面我想放一下几个病人的个案和他们的作品。
 
这个病人是一个农民,四十九岁,从来没有画过画,诊断的是精神分裂症,他有一个特点,他每次发病的时候就喜欢画画,当时他画的一些东西刚开始我也不太能够理解,就是这件作品,大家在座的可能还是能够理解,叫《拖拉机》,这个拖拉机的特点在于什么地方?就是它的视角是不明确的,它是俯视?仰视?还是从哪个角度去看的呢?不是的,不是从任何一个角度,或者说是从各种角度去表现出来的这个拖拉机的形象。但是他没有学过画,没有学习过艺术,你们会感觉到它的构图、它的线条、它的色彩。下一幅作品,当时我非常不理解,我问他是什么,他说是叫《三座山》,我说我怎么看都不像三座山,因为我们这些理性人的视角,是现实的,我问他,我说这三座山怎么看?他说我在天上看到就是这样的。这时候我突然感觉到,精神分裂的人他是脱离现实的。
 
这个病人叫张兵,是一个工人,这是他第一幅画的作品,我看了以后,他是把图像当做文字来写的,或者说他在写画,或者说他是在画字,他把每一个图像,像字一样一排一排地写下来,他的作品当时给我的第一感觉就是我们讲的书画同源。他的第二幅作品,是他画的一幅《医生的肖像》,医生在他内心里面是一个亲切、幽默、搞笑 夸张的这么一个形象,这个人的性格在平常当中也是非常搞笑的一个人,我们在一起的时候,他经常说得大家是欢声笑语,他的语言非常幽默,而且浮想联翩,彼此之间没有任何联系,但是你仔细琢磨一下,彼此之间都有非常深刻的联系,这个就是他画的一个叫《两星级将军》,你们会看到他对将军和刚才医生的形象,他是用完全不同的形式,医生用的线条比较柔和,曲线型的比较多,而这个将军你们可以看到,把头画成一个方的,这个都是他的一个本能。
 
这个病人叫张玉宝,这是他画的一件作品,我作为一个所谓的正常人,我看到他坐在这件作品面前一直在发呆,后来我问他,我说怎么回事?他说我画了这幅作品不知道那一半是什么。但是他传递给我们一个信息,就是人为什么会出现一半这样的一个身影?而且为什么头颅,不是一个头颅,不是一个人头,而是一个钩子?但是这个让我联想到他有一个什么样的经历,他在医院里面自杀过三次都没有成功,而且他自杀的方式,都是用衣服把自己的头和一个物体,比方说和门把手、和床绑在一起,然后强行让自己窒息,所以我想这个图像跟他的生存处境可能有一定关系,但是我想这个需要在座的,如果有专家学者的话,进行一些深入的研究。我觉得精神病人的作品,关键是给我们提供了一个研究的素材,中国在这方面才刚刚开始,这个也是他的一幅作品,叫《怒吼》,这个作品他画出来以后,他有一个让我非常惊讶的就是,他为了表达怒吼这个概念,他用了橘黄颜色、黄颜色、大红颜色,然后大家在中间看到最深的颜色是绿颜色,这个是让我非常意外的,就是什么?他用最强烈的颜色,最后还觉得不够,用了个绿颜色去增加这种跟橘黄色的对比,他为了使画面更加强烈,对于一个没有学习过艺术的人、一个精神病人,他为什么会对色彩如此敏感?这个是让我感到非常神秘的,后来我就联想到,很多研究色彩的科学家,总是用梵高的色彩来说明心理上的问题,这个也就是说,人在自然状态下,对色彩的那种敏感度,应该说是真正的、是真实的。
 
我们今天的很多东西是有很多世俗的经验介入进去,所以说我们今天对色彩,实际上是迟钝的、是世俗的,我们看到红颜色,可能想到的是革命,或者想到的是某种主义,或者想到的是某种道德,但是精神病人,他可能看到这幅作品,它就是跟生命有关的,跟自然有关的一种现象。所以这个就是我想看到精神病人的作品,它对我们提供了这方面的一些启示,这个作品也是他画了以后,我问他,我说你这个画的是什么?他说叫《挣扎》,他讲出来以后,我想你们在座的,可能有很多人都知道日本的一个精神病人艺术家,叫草间弥生,草间弥生她的作品就是点子,实际上你们再看梵高的作品,梵高大部分的作品实际上那个笔触就跟点子一样,都是很短促、点状的,但是张玉宝告诉我们,他表达的是挣扎,而且中间他画了一个人的面孔,实际上这个挣扎肯定是跟人有关,或者说跟人的大脑有关,或者跟人的面孔有关,或者是我认为更主要的他强调的是跟人有关,这个挣扎,是个人的挣扎,那么这个人的挣扎,又是和这么多点联系在一起,它之间的关系是什么?作为我们的经验来看,它的橘黄色,表达的是一种强烈的颜色,它的点状表现人的一种分裂的、躁动的、不能统一的,因为点,它实际上是一种运动的状态,这么多点密布在画面当中,它就是可想而知,这种不能统一的状态。
 
这一位叫李丽的病人,她不是精神分裂症,她在医学上叫智力发育迟滞,我们经常介绍的那个指挥的,有一个叫舟舟,她跟他是同样的疾病,她画画的时候有一个特征,就是她会跟大家吹,让大家要安静,如果有任何声音她都不会画画,这是第一,第二个她一定要让我把画室的窗帘拉上,我们下面看她画的作品。我们现在看到的画面是像涂鸦一样,好像是很随意的,实际上要到现场看的时候,她每一笔选什么颜色,怎么画,都非常用心,当时我看这件作品的时候,我也不能理解,我不知道她画的这些东西,到底是什么样的意思,后来我和她的医生进行沟通,她的医生告诉我,说她经常在病房里面捧着一本书在阅读,但是她绝对不认字,而且医生发现书经常是倒过来的,这个事例让我突然联想到,她和她这个绘画作品之间可能有某种联系,她看着那个文字,在我们看来是文字,对她来讲可能就是一种抽象的结构,或者一种图式,她没有把它当成我们理解的文字来看,她只是把它看作结构,那么她现在表达出来的,实际上也是她内心的一种结构,或者是她对某种事物的一种感受的一种表达。
 
这张作品,是一个女性的精神病人,她平常是非常躁动,但是她在画画的过程当中有一个非常奇怪的现象,一旦拿起笔,立刻非常安静,这跟她不画画时候的状态,完全是截然相反的两种状态,而且她从来不用橡皮,后来我问过她,我说橡皮怎么不用?她说干吗要用橡皮?我说错了呢?她说什么错了?就是说她们是没有错的概念,橡皮,我们现实中的人,没有遮盖的东西就完蛋了,因为我们现实中是习惯于必须要遮盖,必须要隐蔽,但是对于他们精神病人来讲,是没有遮蔽的概念,也没有对和错的概念,一切都是真实的,真实是最重要的,对和错是不重要的,但是我们今天现实当中,重要的是对还是错,实际上这个对和错是一个权力的问题,是一个世俗文化的道德的判断,对于自然来说,今天打雷,你说它是错的吗?今天下雨出太阳是对的,这个非常荒谬,实际上很愚蠢,那么这个画面当中,她这个写实能力非常准确,她从来没有画过画,但是表达能力让你惊讶,这就让我想到英国一个智障的精神病人,他在天空上看到一个城市,然后到陆地上他才开始画,把他看到的东西画出来
 
画出来以后,我们用照相机拍出来的这个城市的俯视照片,跟他画出来的素描对比的时候,是完全一致,就是说精神病人在高度专注,不受任何干扰的情况下,他的一种表达现实的能力也是非常准确,这个画面当中有两个汽车,一个是她写生的汽车,是非常写实的,可以说如果我们常人要想训练,达到那个写实的能力,准确的程度,我认为最少要半年,按照我画画的经验,但是她没有画过画,她画那个轿车,这边那个轿车,是汽车里面的,而且是个俯视图,这张画的汽车是她离开现实以后,自己埋头画的,她告诉我们了一个什么样的信息,就是她看到的世界和她内心的世界是两个截然不同的世界,可能这就是我们所说的分裂,就是他看到的世界和他内心感受的世界是不一样的,他可能被现实排斥,跟现实发生冲突,我认为是这样的一种状态。
 
那么在精神病人身上,我们能看到什么叫艺术天赋,他不仅仅不学习,而且是拒绝学习,另外一个就是人的这种潜能,我们现实当中有很多潜能,实际上是被现实抑制住的。人,他天然有很多能力的,但是这个能力是什么能力?实际上是和自然和生命沟通的能力,跟自然和生命统一的能力,交流的能力,但是我们现在不允许人和自己的本能,和自然沟通,是强迫、法律、道德、教育,很多问题是限制的,你违背它,就会受到惩罚,所以说我们的很多潜能,是表现不出来的,那么在精神病人身上,我们看到了他们很多,人本性所具有的这种能力,这种能力实际上,在我看来非常自然,在外面人看来是很病态,但是我在跟他们交流的时候,他们看到外面的人,又是很病态的,说这些人想说不能说,想笑不能笑,上个厕所还要到处去找,那么就是说这两个世界是一种非常,有的时候已经进入到一种对立的世界,我们现实当中的人,跟自然和本性差距比较远,也就是说精神病人的作品,让我们看到了另外一半,同时也让我们看到了文明,它的意义,它的真相,更重要的是改变了我对艺术价值观的一些理解和判断,过去我们接受的教育,艺术是为谁服务的?为社会、为政治、为商业、为家庭、为名誉、为虚荣等等,我们现实中很多人都是这样的,艺术是起这种功能的,但是精神病人的作品,告诉我一个什么样的真相?就是艺术是为生命、为人和自然的统一服务的,实际上我自从进了精神病医院以后,我就开始寻找这个目标,按照精神病人给我指引的方向,我就在寻找人和自然,人和生命之间的联系,对待这个问题有一个法国的着名哲学家,说过这样一句话,就是德勒兹,他说精神分裂者是我们欲望的英雄,为什么?因为他们敢说、敢做、敢当、敢为,我们现实当中的人是什么都不敢做,所以说这个,就是我今天要仰视他们的这些证据和理由。
 
好,谢谢。

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